Tuesday, February 28, 2017

Negative Resistance is the Reality of Free Energy and Overunity. Look it up at Wikipedia.


A gas discharge tube is a negative resistor. Find them in every neon bulb and every fluorescent tube (without its ballast).

Don't allow Wikipedia to tie us up in knots of confusion involving circular reasoning to obfuscate the truth of negative resistance. Ignore Wikipedia's confusing analogy that amperage drops as a consequence of voltage, and confusingly vice versa. Focus, instead, on the truth of negative resistance neatly tucked away in a simple math relation: the speed of amperage increases as the friction of resistance increases. And since the speed of amperage times the pressure of voltage equals the power of watts, then an increase in friction results in an increase of power. Overunity and free energy is this simple!

My simulation of negative resistance...

Monday, February 27, 2017

Simulation of Free Energy, v.1d - Regulation of Overunity vs Underunity

The problem with oscillating power is that it tends to escalate to infinity and melt the circuit into a pile of mess! So, I came up with a variation of Barbosa and Leal's Earth Captor – thanks to Clarence, Mark McKay, and Eric Dollard – which is an underunity circuit capable of intelligently managed, short bursts of overunity with the help of some switches to leak out any excess stored potential, or in the alternative spike those stored potentials with still more energy! You have to see it to believe it. Those stored potentials can linger for quite some time capable of powering loads long before requiring any more power from the source to make up for any loss due to inefficiency. In short, the recycling of energy!

I keep the value of the two central capacitors within a reasonable 10m Farads, each. And their associated transformers (flanking them on either side of a single LMD module) are a mere 100µ Henry's - a fraction of what they could be! But why be an extremist? Why court danger by a ridiculous pursuit of excessive free energy? Why not a modest approach? One which we could live with?

This is the tragic joke of free energy in which prejudice, and blind belief, rules without any critical judgement. Sure, there's lots of frauds. But not all of them. A few are legitimate.

This simulation uses Iain Sharp's JavaScript port of Paul Falstad's Circuit Simulator originally written in Java. I've converted B&L's Electric Keeper (in the center of their circuit)...

... into one LMD module of Eric Dollard's Analog Computer in Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric mode normally useful for bench testing emulations of various types of AC transmission lines. No animals were harmed in the making of this simulation.

Go to this link to download a blank simulator canvass into your browser's window:

Download this file and then load it into your browser's blank simulator:


The shortcut for this blog is:

Here is the backdrop to how I managed to evolve my thinking to achieve this with a two hour video composed of my prior development. Enjoy!

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Reducing the AC Sources to One

Lengthening the Oscilloscope Flash of a Neon Bulb's Spark Gap with the Help of a Capacitor

I don't know about you, but I don't like messy appearances (have I looked at myself in the mirror, lately?).👻

If an unregulated neon bulb / spark gap fires rapidly many times during each half-phase of an AC cycle creating peaks and troughs (of each spike) which are shallow by comparison to withholding the arcing to accentuate the height or depth of each spike, then maybe this is better? I don't know...

I found that by placing a capacitor across the neon bulb (in parallel with it), I could get the desired result by examining this simple example of a flashing neon bulb...

Here's another one...

Compare those clearly defined arcs to these messy ones...

Now, here, I've cleaned them up...

Simulating Barbosa and Leal, version 4

Referencing Schematic

Moving right along...
Here's another version of my attempt to simulate B&L using only grounding rods, but also using the above schematic to move the neon bulb yet again – this time, closer to the Captor Loop's ground rods (what would have been the 56 rods in Clarence's case):

And here's the exact same configuration except that Eric Dollard's analog computer in Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric mode (not optimized for resonance) is substituting for the two ground rods in the example, above:

Notice anything peculiar when comparing the output of these two simulations?

The ground rod version manages to put out what appears to be a slight overunity by virtue of the wattage and amperage of the power sources sometimes going negative indicating a feedback of sorts undermining their expense of energy?

The light bulb's voltage is steady at 120 volts.

But its temperature, as measured by the simulator in Kelvins, never reaches beyond 1,800°, while the lamp of the LMD simulation easily gets white hot at over 2,400°.

The LMD version is more variable data measuring the lamp's output, but the evidence of overunity of the two power sources – especially the right-hand source – is much more promising.

No doubt, a longer LMD daisy chain, or an optimized LMD, or both, is the next step!

Simulating Barbosa and Leal, version 3

Referencing Schematic

This is the best that I can do. The Captor Loop is non-interactive with the Electric Keeper. Interestingly enough, sometimes the power (wattage) and the amps of the right-hand AC power source (feeding the two transformers) goes negative. What does that mean? Does it mean that this power source is getting energy from the two toroids? Is this where the overunity (in this simulation) is appearing? Hmmmm.

Friday, February 24, 2017

Simulating Barbosa and Leal, version 2

First of all, this schematic doesn't work:

Referencing Schematic

The required voltage doesn't get high enough to light the neon bulb. In this simulation, lighting the neon bulb means sending sparks across the spark gap.

But the source voltage at the far left, represented by the AC Sinewave Inverter, does get high enough – all the time!

I probably don't know yet how to electrostatically charge the Captor Loop with sufficient voltage to light a neon bulb underneath the Captor Loop. So, for the time being, I'll reposition the neon bulb / spark gap over to the immediate right of the far left, AC power source.

Here's a version to replace Earth ground using Eric Dollard's analog computer in Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric mode, but without any attempt to optimize the values of its capacitors and inductors to reach resonance:

Thursday, February 23, 2017

First Attempt at Simulating Barbosa and Leal

Of course, this is not intended to be accurate - just an initial attempt at laying out the groundwork. Realism is lacking. That will take time.

The AC power source is straining at supplying enough energy for the entire circuit. It exhibits indications of this strain by virtue of its very high amperage and wattage to compensate. The Captor Loop hasn't been tied to its underlying wire (composing a portion of the secondary, or Electric Keeper). And the Earth is not contributing anything. And I'm not sure whether I'm supposed to put the resistor in parallel below the spark gap rather than alongside of it. But it seemed happier there!😉

I'm extremely grateful for Paul Falstad and Iain Sharp for their very accessible software.

Referencing Schematic

Spark Gap, Neon Simulation

Woo, Hoo! Flashing Neon Bulb Simulation!

Monday, February 20, 2017

How to use a Diode

Finally! A video I can agree with on diodes and the direction of their current based -- not on what everyone else is saying, but -- on how a diode is connected to the power supply. EGADS, can't anyone get anything right?

I posted the following comment on A simple guide to electronic components:

"I'm shocked! I had to watch three videos on YouTube -- this being the first of the three -- before I could hear someone say that current flowing from the cathode toward the anode across a diode is blocked. I remember reading somewhere that this assumption began way back in the 1800s by physicists incorrectly deducing that the electron was the passive component of an atom (yin) and the proton was the active component (yang). Since they recognized their error fifty years after it began, they decided it was too late to correct it. I just assumed that everyone knows this by now and no longer makes the same mistake? The tell tale sign is: which side of the diode connects to which terminal on a DC power supply? If the diode's cathode has to be connected to the negative terminal on a DC power supply, then that means that electrons are flowing against the diode's arrow. This also implies that voltage builds up across a diode if current is forced to flow in the reverse direction from the diode's anode towards its cathode by connecting the diode's anode to the negative terminal on a DC power supply. Or am i misusing the term: 'current'? Should I be using the term: 'amperage', instead? This is so confusing...... Can somebody, please, clear this up? 🤣"

What Do We Know About Geology To Help Explain Barbosa and Leal's Use of Ground Rods?


Since Resistivity can be around 10 ohms – and upwards to nearly 100 ohms – per cubic meter near the surface of the Earth, it can be inferred from this that Barbosa and Leal does not seek to magnify capacitance in their circuit as a singular factor. In other words, the Earth doesn't represent a huge capacitor to the energy traveling around inside of B&L's circuit. The Earth is more likely a weak resistor. But this allows for this circuit's characteristic emphasis to lie elsewhere among some other factor of electrodynamics. This terrestrial resistance acts as a weak load which is ever present. Such mild loads are usually held as safety checks to disallow the circuit from frying itself should no load be engaged when the circuit is first turned ON.

Electrostatic Depth

The ground rods are kept closely spaced. One meter separates their radius. This implies that only the length of each ground rod is the depth of DC Electrostatic Resistivity to which B&L's circuit will encounter – no more than this (as further noted, below). So, a volume of soil bounded by a depth of eight feet – and whose width and length is no more width and length than the same as is covered by the orderly arrangement of all of the ground rods spaced next to one another – is the volume of Resistivity to which B&L's circuit encounters.

Electromagnetic Depth

On the other hand, the depth to which any electromagnetic wave (emanating from out of B&L's ground rods) can penetrate the Earth is determined by a lack of Resistivity within the soil surrounding the ground rods. Since this circuit depends upon geoelectromagnetics to magnify its output beyond that of its input, soil conductivity is to be avoided – as Clarence has already discovered during rains.
Depth of Electromagnetic penetration is also enhanced by the low frequency of consumers' use of municipal power (ranging from 50 to 60 cycles per second as indicated by Clarence's replication of Barbosa and Leal's AC version of their circuit). This conclusion is derived from the Magnetotelluric Field Method of geologic surveying...

... depth penetration increases with a decrease in frequency ...” Section 2.1.3 of My AIMS Essay.

Induced Polarization

The operational procedure of the Induced Polarization (IP) method is similar to the resistivity method, as it also employs the same electrode configurations. However, the most effective ones are the double dipole and Schlumberger electrode configurations. The measurements are fraught with certain errors or anomalies (noise) which may be due to telluric currents, and electromagnetic coupling between measuring equipments like the wires, where current can be induced on another wire as a result of the shorter distance of separation between the two wires (Ampere’s law). [proximity of grounding rods]

Induced polarization may be time-domain, where controlled current signals are introduced into the ground through the two current electrodes, and the overvoltage between the signals is measured across the two potential electrodes. It could also be frequency domain, where the alternating current fed into the ground depends on frequency. It makes use of the principle that, when an alternating current is passed into the ground, the apparent resistivity of rocks in which polarisation can be induced is higher with low-frequency current than with higher-frequency current. This is because the capacitance of the ground inhibits the passage of direct currents but transmits alternating currents with increasing efficiency as the frequency rises [KB84].” Section 2.2.3 of My AIMS Essay.

3.8 Pulse-transient electromagnetic systems

These may also be referred to as the time-domain EM systems. The systems work by generating an electromagnetic field which induces a series of currents in the Earth at increasing depths over time. These currents create a magnetic field which is measured by the receiver in order to deduce subsurface properties and features at great depth. In other cases, it is the decaying voltage observed while the current is turned off, that is measured and recorded as a function of time. The magnitude and rate of decay of the eddy currents depend on the conductivity of the medium and on the geometry of the conductive layers. Currents will decay very rapidly in media with high resistivity. A conductive layer at a depth may “trap” currents in that layer, while currents elsewhere decay more rapidly. Section 3.8 of My AIMS Essay.

Field Antenna

I propose that B&L casts a net to “catch” the same fish as its net is composed of, namely that of: electromagnetics. And whatever it manages to collect is from no greater a depth than the length of each ground rod.

Orientation of Ground Rods

And the electromagnetism which these ground rods collect travels horizontally along the underside of the surface of the Earth tangential to the Earth's center of mass. This would evoke hints that this energy's origin is both manmade and put there by lightning strikes – not emanating outwardly towards the sky from the Earth's center. That would be a different energy source from the Earth's mass, itself.

Galvanic Response

It can't be ignored that the copper plating on each ground rod, overlaying its inner steel, creates a mild battery of electric charge despite the seeming mildness of this contribution towards the overall charge imparted to the soil by B&L's circuit.

Terrestrial Response

Nor can it be ignored that the Earth responds like a living breathing organism toward any electromagnetic influence – imparted to it from above – by its inhabitants.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

AC vs DC Barbosa and Leal

Differences in surface area epitomizes the two sets of grounding rods' most important feature: their polarization. Diodes epitomize the Captor Loop of Barbosa and Leal, because the direction of their arrow is their most important feature: their polarization. Within the context of B&L, the former represents voltage polarization while the latter represents amperage polarization. The beauty of B&L is the segregation of these two distinct principles operating simultaneously side-by-side in one device.

Eric Dollard likes to say how voltage and amperage are fictional creations of the minds of electrical engineers whose sole basis in reality is flawed theory dependent on measuring devices to make up for their lack of accurate understanding. This skews perspective. Einstein was right in one sense: relativity is predicated on perspective. But perspective is a creation of mind born of circumstance. For example...

Voltage is phenomena born of perceiving electrical activity from outside its domain while amperage is the same phenomena viewed from inside that same domain. Nothing has changed; only our viewpoint has shifted.

The ground rods emphasize voltage accumulation among the greater of the two sets of rods. And an AC oriented B&L requires periodic emphasis – and accumulation – of voltage among the lesser quantity of rods for every half cycle of an AC's full cycle. So, both sets of grounding rods are made of steel – a ferromagnetizable material. And the lesser quantity of ground rods are fed by the AC neutral to de-emphasize their relevant importance to store voltage. A B&L fed by DC power would have similar requirements although only the larger of the two sets of rods need accumulate voltage. And both versions of B&L, AC and DC, could have their grounding rods replaced by a single strand of wire centered within a very wide diameter iron tube filled with: clay, quartzite, and silica gel.

Voltage polarization satisfies the inlet of electrical energy into B&L, but does not satisfy the polarization of its motion. For that, a neon bulb is necessary – in the case of AC B&L's – connected in parallel with the Captor Loop's two leads. For DC B&L's, a diode replaces the neon bulb used for AC implementation and points its cathode towards the Captor Loop's Ground Rod Return to emphasize the need for this one section of wire in B&L's circuit to embody voltage without amperage – charge without motion. Thus, it is a two step process to first get voltage to enter into B&L's circuit from the Earth through its ground rods – but in particular through its larger set of ground rods. And the second step is to get that voltage to move across the Captor Loop's coil winding surrounding the Electric Keeper in a direction away from the ground rods in the form of amperage.

I'm using Aaron Murakami's definition of a diode, here, quoted from his essay entitled: “Ignition Secrets”, which can be found online for a modest price at – http://ignitionsecrets.com/. In that power point discussion, he discusses how voltage travels in the direction of the arrow marked on diodes with a stripe (usually colored black) while, at the same time, amperage flows in the opposite direction. Recently, I have recently found myself beginning to say something remarkably similar using different wording: electrons flow against the diode's arrow while electron holes flow in the direction of its arrow.

With the use of a neon bulb placed in parallel across the leads of a Captor Loop in an AC oriented B&L, the voltage spikes at the beginning of every AC half cycle constitute the equivalent of what a diode manages to sustain in a DC circuit all the time: get voltage to move over to one side of a wire and stay there. Since the frequency of AC is fast enough to offset whatever voltage bleed off occurs over the remaining period of every AC half cycle with another voltage spike at the start of the next AC half cycle, the problem of voltage bleed off is not a big issue. But for DC it is a problem, for the voltage spike at the start of powering ON a DC device (of any sort) only lasts so long and then you're left with a mild cruising speed – so to speak – of moderate voltage over the course of operating that device until it is finally shut OFF. Hence, there is a very real need for replacing the neon bulb – in any DC implementation of B&L – with a diode pointing towards the Ground Rod Return of the Captor Loop.

I Have A Conscience

I know what grief is. I know what loss is. I know what pride is. Pride is hiding from the grief of loss.

But I don't know what shame is. Possibly because I've already lost any sense of duty towards privacy since I lost that one, too, a long time ago?

I know what self-determination of service is. That's one of the few virtues left remaining within myself. For I have a conscience and an acquired distaste for allowing any further loss.

I won't grow if I don't allow for loss.

Growth is of two types: growth of heart versus growth of intellect. Intellect merely analyzes and acquires facts. It is not satisfactory, but retains a constant hunger - which is never satiable - for more facts and more experiences.  I'll have to wait a thousand years before I can pick up where I've left off. For my heart pines for my son as well as the time we've lost apart. And the loss of identity for his being my son. This is irreconcilable.

And if I won't grow, then I die already before I enter the grave.

All for the sake of conscience. And duty. And service without consideration for compensation of any sort – which also ignores consequences.

Therein lies my grief.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Cosmic Energy Machines: As Explained by the Lee-Tseung Lead Out Theory, by Lawrence Tseung, v.3.0, 25 Oct 2007, an excerpt of Ch. 4.

As Explained by the Lee-Tseung Lead Out Theory
By: Lawrence Tseung
Version 3.0 on October 25, 2007

Note: The major change to V3.0 is the realization that the Ideal Pulse Force for a Pendulum is the Pull applied perpendicular to the arc of motion at the maximum displaced positions. This Pull will Lead Out the maximum Gravitational Energy via the Tension in the String. Similarly, the best Pulse Force for rotating systems is tangential to the radius (or in the direction of rotation). The rotating systems should rotate faster due to the Pulse Force and rotate slower due to External Load (friction, work etc.).

1. Boat in Calm Water and Good Sunshine Scenario
2. The Development History of the Cosmic Energy Inventions
3. The Indirect use of Gravitational Energy (Still Air etc.)
4. Explaining the Lee-Tseung Lead Out theory via the application of Pull to the simple pendulum
    4.1 The First Pull of the Pendulum Bob to the LHS
    4.2 The Second Pull when the Bob is at the maximum LHS position
    4.3 The Third Pull when the Bob has swung to the maximum RHS position
    4.4 The Subsequent pulls at the maximum displaced LHS/RHS positions.
    4.5 Summary and Implication of the new calculations
5. The Direct use of Gravitational and Electron Motion Energy
    5.1 First Generation (Extract Energy via cutting Earth’s Magnetic Field)
    5.2 Second Generation (Extract Energy from Gravity)
    5.3 Third Generation (Use of Intelligent Chips)
    5.4 Fourth Generation (Extract Energy via Change of Magnetic Flux)
    5.5 Fifth Generation (Improving the Third Generation over 100 times)
6. Explaining the operation of the TPU (for comparison)
7. Summary
8. Appendix A – The mathematical calculation of forces on the Pendulum

4. Explaining the Lee-Tseung Lead Out theory via the application of Push and/or
Pull to the simple pendulum

We can now describe how Cosmic Energy can be Led Out from: 
(1) The first pull of the pendulum from rest position to LHS
(2) The second pull from the maximum position on LHS
(3) The third pull after the pendulum swings to the maximum position on the RHS
(4) The subsequent repeat of (2) and (3)
(5) The extension to Magnetic Fields (Electron Motion)
(6) The extension to Electric Fields (Electron Motion)
(7) The extension to unbalanced rotations
(8) The extension to pulsed balanced rotations
9) The extension to flux change systems
10) The extension to Flying Saucers
It was like building a jigsaw puzzle. Lee and I had the basic idea in 2004. As we put in additional pieces, the picture became clearer and clearer. 
4.1 The First Pull of the Pendulum Bob to the LHS
We can clearly apply the Vector Mathematics of Integrals to this situation. The Pendulum Bob starts from rest. This means it is suspended vertically with no motion. We then apply a Horizontal Pull on the Pendulum Bob to move it to the LHS. The Pendulum Bob moves to the LHS and rises slightly upwards. We can use the Law of parallelogram of forces for analysis.

We can resolve the force into the vertical and horizontal components. There are three forces acting on the Pendulum Bob:

1. The gravitational force F1g,
2. The Tension of the String F1s and
3. The Horizontal Pull F1p.

These three forces are at equilibrium when the Pendulum is pulled to the LHS.

We can resolve the displacement into it’s vertical and horizontal components. The horizontal displacement is Lsin(a). The vertical displacement is L(1-cos(a)).

The Horizontal Work Done (Energy Supplied) is by the Horizontal Pull only.
The value = F1p x Lsin(a)

The Vertical Work Done is by the Vertical Component of the String.
The value = (F1s x cos(a) x L(1-cos(a)) = F1g x L(1-cos(a))

Figure 4.1 The First Pull

The first Pull on the Pendulum is from the rest position to the LHS.

The three forces acting on the Pendulum Bob are:
F1g = Force due to Gravity (weight)
F1s = Force due to Tension of String
F1p = Horizontal Pull
Figure 4.2 The Displacement

L = Length of the String

Horizontal Displacement = Lsin(a)
Vertical Displacement = L(1-cos(a))

This analysis shows that some energy must come from the Tension of the String. (Horizontal force without the use of machines such as pulleys, levers etc. cannot do work in the vertical direction.).
This "String Energy" is the Lead Out Gravitational Energy.

The Coefficient of Performance (CoP) = Total Output Energy / Input Energy
= (F1p x Lsin(a) + F1g x L(1-cos(a))) / F1g x L(1-cos(a))
= approximately 1.5 for small angles

Thus the analysis of the first horizontal pull on the Pendulum Bob clearly indicated that some energy comes from the Tension of the String, which is the Lead Out Gravitational Energy as described in the Lee-Tseung Theory.

4.2 The Second Pull when the Bob is at the maximum LHS position 
This step is a change from a Horizontal Pull in 4.1 to a Pull perpendicular to the arc of motion. The direction is no longer perfectly horizontal. It can be treated as an extension of 4.1.

Figure 4.3 Pull Perpendicular to Motion

The Second Pull is no longer perfectly
horizontal. It is Perpendicular to the arc
of Motion (or 90 degrees to the radius as

This means that the Second Pull has both
vertical and horizontal components.

The slight modification is that the pull force is no longer horizontal. It is perpendicular to the arc of Motion (or tangentially). When resolved into horizontal and vertical directions, F1p has a vertical component contributing directly to lifting the Bob upwards.

However, the Tension of the String will still contribute. Thus this Second Pull will also Lead Out Gravitational Energy. In Appendix A, we use angle a = 30 degrees and further Pull it by 2 degrees. The CoP is 1.7 approximately (even better than 1.5!)

4.3 The Third Pull when the Bob has swung to the maximum RHS position 
This Step happens after the pendulum is released from the maximum position after Steps (1) and (2) on the LHS. The Pendulum Bob has acquired the energy from Pull(1) and Pull (2) PLUS the Lead Out gravitational energies.

When released from the maximum position on the LHS, the Bob swings back to the RHS. If there were no loss of energy, the Bob will reach the maximum mirror position on the RHS.
There is no additional Gravitational Energy after the release. There is energy change from potential to kinetic etc.

At the Maximum RHS position, before the Bob changes direction, a Third Pull in the tangential direction to the movement arc is applied. This Third Pull will have both vertical and horizontal components.

However, the Tension of the String still contributes to the vertical energy. Gravitational Energy is again Led Out. 
4.4 The Subsequent pulls at the maximum displaced LHS/RHS positions.

The start of this Step happens after the pendulum is released from the maximum position after 4.3. The Pendulum Bob has acquired the energy from Pull (1), Pull (2), and Pull (3) PLUS the Lead Out gravitational energies.

When released from the maximum position on the LHS/RHS, the Bob swings back to the RHS/LHS. If there were no loss of energy, the Bob will reach the maximum mirror position on the RHS/LHS. If there were no subsequent Pulls, the Pendulum would keep swinging forever assuming no loss of energy.

There is no additional Gravitational Energy during the swing. There is energy change from potential to kinetic etc.

At the Maximum LHS or RHS position, before the Bob changes direction, a Pull in the tangential direction to the movement arc is applied. This Pull will have both vertical and horizontal components.

However, the Tension of the String still contributes to the vertical energy. Gravitational Energy is again Led Out.

Thus the amplitude of the swing increases. Most of the time, no gravitational energy is Led Out. However, there is Lead Out Gravitational Energy during the application of the many Pulls.

These Pulls must be applied at the right time. This right time is what we referred to as resonance. Continued Pulling will produce a much larger angle, the ratio of (Lead Out Energy / Pull Energy) will drop from 0.7 to a much lower figure.

Thus the Pulsed (periodically pulled) Pendulum is NOT the most efficient Gravitational Energy Lead Out machine.

If the applied pull is always in the horizontal direction, the bob will not rise above the pivot point of the string. However, the tension will keep increasing. This is the reason why bridges can break apart at resonance. The many small pulls can indeed add together to infinity!!!

This new understanding of the destructive force at resonance will have important impact in our daily lives.

4.5 Summary and Implication of the new calculations

The first 4 steps essentially describe a particular way of moving the simple Pendulum. The stationary pendulum is...

(1) Pulled to the LHS by a Horizontal Force (1) without letting it go. The Pendulum Bob will go up because of the tension in the string. The horizontal force cannot do work in the vertical direction by itself. It can do horizontal work. The vertical work (lifting of the Pendulum Bob) is done by the Tension of the String. This is the Lead Out Gravitational Energy. 
(2) The Pendulum is still at rest but now a Pull force (2) is applied. This Pull Force (2) is no longer horizontal. It is tangential to the arc of motion. This Pull Force (2) can do work both vertically and horizontally. However, some of the vertical work is done by the Tension of the String. This Pull (2) also Leads Out Gravitational Energy.

(3) The Pendulum is then let go. It will swing from its maximum position on the LHS to its maximum position on the RHS. During this “let go” period, no more Push or Pull force is applied. There will be no more Leading Out of Gravitational Energy during this swinging period. If there were no losses of energy due to friction, air resistance etc., the swinging motion should continue forever. Now, when the Pendulum Bob swings to its maximum position on the RHS, another Pull Force (3) tangential to the arc of motion is applied. This Pull Force (3) will also Lead Out Gravitational Energy.

(4) Both Pull Energy and Lead Out Gravitational Energy are added by repeating (2) and (3). The amplitude of the Swing increases. If no more Pull Force were applied at any time, the Pendulum would swing with the acquired amplitude and kept swinging forever at that amplitude if there were no energy loss. This is the true understanding of the "periodically pulled" or pulsed Pendulum.

This new understanding of the Pulsed Pendulum explains the Lead Out Gravitational Energy much more clearly.